Android

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Android
Android-icon.png
Android icon by Rudy Phelippeau
Screenshot
Developer(s)Various (mostly Google and the Open Handset Alliance)
Written inJava (UI), C (core), C++ and others
OS familyUnix-like (Modified Linux kernel)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelMix of open source and proprietary software components
Initial releaseSeptember 23, 2008; 12 years ago (2008-09-23)
Latest releaseAndroid 10 / September 3, 2019; 12 months ago (2019-09-03)
Latest previewAndroid 11 Developer Preview 4 (RPP4.200409.015) / May 6, 2020; 4 months ago (2020-05-06)
Marketing targetSmartphones, tablet computers, smart TVs (Android TV), Android Auto and smartwatches (Wear OS)
Available in100+ languages
Update methodOver-the-air
Package managerAPK-based
Platforms64-bit (32-bit being dropped) ARM architecture, x86 and x86-64
Kernel typeLinux kernel
UserlandBionic libc, Korn shell shell, Toybox as core utilities (beginning with Android 6.0)
Default user interfaceGraphical (multi-touch)
License
Websitewww.android.com
Android-icon.png

Android is an operating system primarily for mobile devices with touchscreens. It has a typically very modified and customized Linux kernel at its core with a mix of free and proprietary software on top. Android is developed by a primarily Google-lead and controlled industry consortium called the "Open Handset Alliance". Android comes pre-installed on a huge amount of phones, tablets, television top-set boxes and gaming consoles.

Development

Android is developmed by a the "Open Handset Alliance" industry consortium. It has 84 members who are contractually forbidden from making devices running forks of the Android operating system. The Android operating system produced by the OHA is called the "Android Open Source Project" (AOSP). It is mostly licensed under the Apache License. The majority Android versions shipped to end-users has the ASOP code base and a large amount of non-free proprietary drivers and applications on top.

App-Stores

Most Android devices sold in the west come with a proprietary application store called the "Google Play Store" pre-installed. What is and is not allowed in that store is tightly controlled by the Google corporation who takes a large cut of the sales-price of the commercial applications available in that store.

Free software enthusiasts can install the alternative free software focused F-Droid app-store. F-Droid has a large amount of very useful programs licensed under free software licenses available. Some of the applications available in the F-Droid store have anti-features and censorship. All the software in the F-Droid app-store is built on the F-Droid build servers, they will only allow applications into their store if they are able to acquire the source code and build it themselves.

Android On Linux

There are few good options for running Android applications directly on a GNU/Linux desktop or laptop computer.

Running the full Android-x86 distribution, available from the link-spam riddled website android-x86.org, in QEMU is one option that will let you run Android software on your desktop. It's not as ideal as running them natively but there are no good easy to use solutions for doing that (let us know if you find one).

Trivia

The Android robot is available as an add-on in the free software kart game SuperTuxKart.

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