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syslog

, klogctl read and/or clear kernel message ring buffer;


  1. syslog.2.man
  2. syslog.3.man


1. syslog.2.man

Manpage of SYSLOG

SYSLOG

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
Updated: 2008-06-20
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

syslog, klogctl - read and/or clear kernel message ring buffer; set console_loglevel  

SYNOPSIS

int syslog(int type, char *bufp, int len);
                /* No wrapper provided in glibc */

/* The glibc interface */

#include <sys/klog.h> int klogctl(int type, char *bufp, int len);
 

DESCRIPTION

If you need the C library function syslog() (which talks to syslogd(8)), then look at syslog(3). The system call of this name is about controlling the kernel printk() buffer, and the glibc version is called klogctl().

The type argument determines the action taken by this function.

Quoting from kernel/printk.c:

/*
 * Commands to sys_syslog:
 *
 *      0 -- Close the log.  Currently a NOP.
 *      1 -- Open the log. Currently a NOP.
 *      2 -- Read from the log.
 *      3 -- Read all messages remaining in the ring buffer.
 *      4 -- Read and clear all messages remaining in the ring buffer
 *      5 -- Clear ring buffer.
 *      6 -- Disable printk to console
 *      7 -- Enable printk to console
 *      8 -- Set level of messages printed to console
 *      9 -- Return number of unread characters in the log buffer
 *     10 -- Return size of the log buffer
 */

Only command types 3 and 10 are allowed to unprivileged processes. Type 9 was added in 2.4.10; type 10 in 2.6.6.  

The kernel log buffer

The kernel has a cyclic buffer of length LOG_BUF_LEN in which messages given as arguments to the kernel function printk() are stored (regardless of their loglevel). In early kernels, LOG_BUF_LEN had the value 4096; from kernel 1.3.54, it was 8192; from kernel 2.1.113 it was 16384; since 2.4.23/2.6 the value is a kernel configuration option. In recent kernels the size can be queried with command type 10.

The call syslog(2,buf,len) waits until this kernel log buffer is nonempty, and then reads at most len bytes into the buffer buf. It returns the number of bytes read. Bytes read from the log disappear from the log buffer: the information can only be read once. This is the function executed by the kernel when a user program reads /proc/kmsg.

The call syslog(3,buf,len) will read the last len bytes from the log buffer (nondestructively), but will not read more than was written into the buffer since the last "clear ring buffer" command (which does not clear the buffer at all). It returns the number of bytes read.

The call syslog(4,buf,len) does precisely the same, but also executes the "clear ring buffer" command.

The call syslog(5,dummy,dummy) executes just the "clear ring buffer" command. (In each call where buf or len is shown as "dummy", the value of the argument is ignored by the call.)

The call syslog(6,dummy,dummy) sets the console log level to minimum, so that no messages are printed to the console.

The call syslog(7,dummy,dummy) sets the console log level to default, so that messages are printed to the console.

The call syslog(8,dummy,level) sets the console log level to level, which must be an integer between 1 and 8 (inclusive). See the loglevel section for details.

The call syslog(9,dummy,dummy) returns the number of bytes currently available to be read on the kernel log buffer.

The call syslog(10,dummy,dummy) returns the total size of the kernel log buffer.  

The loglevel

The kernel routine printk() will only print a message on the console, if it has a loglevel less than the value of the variable console_loglevel. This variable initially has the value DEFAULT_CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL (7), but is set to 10 if the kernel command line contains the word "debug", and to 15 in case of a kernel fault (the 10 and 15 are just silly, and equivalent to 8). This variable is set (to a value in the range 1-8) by the call syslog(8,dummy,value). The calls syslog(type,dummy,dummy) with type equal to 6 or 7, set it to 1 (kernel panics only) or 7 (all except debugging messages), respectively.

Every text line in a message has its own loglevel. This level is DEFAULT_MESSAGE_LOGLEVEL - 1 (6) unless the line starts with <d> where d is a digit in the range 1-7, in which case the level is d. The conventional meaning of the loglevel is defined in <linux/kernel.h> as follows:

#define KERN_EMERG    "<0>"  /* system is unusable               */
#define KERN_ALERT    "<1>"  /* action must be taken immediately */
#define KERN_CRIT     "<2>"  /* critical conditions              */
#define KERN_ERR      "<3>"  /* error conditions                 */
#define KERN_WARNING  "<4>"  /* warning conditions               */
#define KERN_NOTICE   "<5>"  /* normal but significant condition */
#define KERN_INFO     "<6>"  /* informational                    */
#define KERN_DEBUG    "<7>"  /* debug-level messages             */
 

RETURN VALUE

For type equal to 2, 3, or 4, a successful call to syslog() returns the number of bytes read. For type 9, syslog() returns the number of bytes currently available to be read on the kernel log buffer. For type 10, syslog() returns the total size of the kernel log buffer. For other values of type, 0 is returned on success.

In case of error, -1 is returned, and errno is set to indicate the error.  

ERRORS

EINVAL
Bad arguments (e.g., bad type; or for type 2, 3, or 4, buf is NULL, or len is less than zero; or for type 8, the level is outside the range 1 to 8).
ENOSYS
This syslog() system call is not available, because the kernel was compiled with the CONFIG_PRINTK kernel-configuration option disabled.
EPERM
An attempt was made to change console_loglevel or clear the kernel message ring buffer by a process without sufficient privilege (more precisely: without the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability).
ERESTARTSYS
System call was interrupted by a signal; nothing was read. (This can be seen only during a trace.)
 

CONFORMING TO

This system call is Linux-specific and should not be used in programs intended to be portable.  

NOTES

From the very start people noted that it is unfortunate that a system call and a library routine of the same name are entirely different animals. In libc4 and libc5 the number of this call was defined by SYS_klog. In glibc 2.0 the syscall is baptized klogctl().  

SEE ALSO

syslog(3)  

COLOPHON

This page is part of release 3.32 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The kernel log buffer
The loglevel
RETURN VALUE
ERRORS
CONFORMING TO
NOTES
SEE ALSO
COLOPHON

This document was created by man2html using the manual pages.
Time: 17:32:40 GMT, October 23, 2013

2. syslog.3.man

Manpage of SYSLOG

SYSLOG

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (3)
Updated: 2008-11-12
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

closelog, openlog, syslog, vsyslog - send messages to the system logger  

SYNOPSIS

#include <syslog.h>

void openlog(const char *ident, int option, int facility);
void syslog(int priority, const char *format, ...);
void closelog(void);

#include <stdarg.h>

void vsyslog(int priority, const char *format, va_list ap);

Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

vsyslog(): _BSD_SOURCE  

DESCRIPTION

closelog() closes the descriptor being used to write to the system logger. The use of closelog() is optional.

openlog() opens a connection to the system logger for a program. The string pointed to by ident is prepended to every message, and is typically set to the program name. The option argument specifies flags which control the operation of openlog() and subsequent calls to syslog(). The facility argument establishes a default to be used if none is specified in subsequent calls to syslog(). Values for option and facility are given below. The use of openlog() is optional; it will automatically be called by syslog() if necessary, in which case ident will default to NULL.

syslog() generates a log message, which will be distributed by syslogd(8). The priority argument is formed by ORing the facility and the level values (explained below). The remaining arguments are a format, as in printf(3) and any arguments required by the format, except that the two character sequence %m will be replaced by the error message string strerror(errno). A trailing newline may be added if needed.

The function vsyslog() performs the same task as syslog() with the difference that it takes a set of arguments which have been obtained using the stdarg(3) variable argument list macros.

The subsections below list the parameters used to set the values of option, facility, and priority.  

option

The option argument to openlog() is an OR of any of these:
LOG_CONS
Write directly to system console if there is an error while sending to system logger.
LOG_NDELAY
Open the connection immediately (normally, the connection is opened when the first message is logged).
LOG_NOWAIT
Don't wait for child processes that may have been created while logging the message. (The GNU C library does not create a child process, so this option has no effect on Linux.)
LOG_ODELAY
The converse of LOG_NDELAY; opening of the connection is delayed until syslog() is called. (This is the default, and need not be specified.)
LOG_PERROR
(Not in POSIX.1-2001.) Print to stderr as well.
LOG_PID
Include PID with each message.
 

facility

The facility argument is used to specify what type of program is logging the message. This lets the configuration file specify that messages from different facilities will be handled differently.
LOG_AUTH
security/authorization messages (DEPRECATED Use LOG_AUTHPRIV instead)
LOG_AUTHPRIV
security/authorization messages (private)
LOG_CRON
clock daemon (cron and at)
LOG_DAEMON
system daemons without separate facility value
LOG_FTP
ftp daemon
LOG_KERN
kernel messages (these can't be generated from user processes)
LOG_LOCAL0 through LOG_LOCAL7
reserved for local use
LOG_LPR
line printer subsystem
LOG_MAIL
mail subsystem
LOG_NEWS
USENET news subsystem
LOG_SYSLOG
messages generated internally by syslogd(8)
LOG_USER (default)
generic user-level messages
LOG_UUCP
UUCP subsystem
 

level

This determines the importance of the message. The levels are, in order of decreasing importance:
LOG_EMERG
system is unusable
LOG_ALERT
action must be taken immediately
LOG_CRIT
critical conditions
LOG_ERR
error conditions
LOG_WARNING
warning conditions
LOG_NOTICE
normal, but significant, condition
LOG_INFO
informational message
LOG_DEBUG
debug-level message

The function setlogmask(3) can be used to restrict logging to specified levels only.  

CONFORMING TO

The functions openlog(), closelog(), and syslog() (but not vsyslog()) are specified in SUSv2 and POSIX.1-2001. POSIX.1-2001 specifies only the LOG_USER and LOG_LOCAL* values for facility. However, with the exception of LOG_AUTHPRIV and LOG_FTP, the other facility values appear on most UNIX systems. The LOG_PERROR value for option is not specified by POSIX.1-2001, but is available in most versions of UNIX.  

NOTES

The argument ident in the call of openlog() is probably stored as-is. Thus, if the string it points to is changed, syslog() may start prepending the changed string, and if the string it points to ceases to exist, the results are undefined. Most portable is to use a string constant.

Never pass a string with user-supplied data as a format, use the following instead:


    syslog(priority, "%s", string);
 

SEE ALSO

logger(1), setlogmask(3), syslog.conf(5), syslogd(8)  

COLOPHON

This page is part of release 3.32 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
option
facility
level
CONFORMING TO
NOTES
SEE ALSO
COLOPHON

This document was created by man2html using the manual pages.
Time: 17:32:40 GMT, October 23, 2013

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