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rsa


  1. rsa.1.man
  2. rsa.3.man


1. rsa.1.man

Manpage of RSA

RSA

Section: OpenSSL (1)
Updated: 2003-01-30
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

rsa - RSA key processing tool  

SYNOPSIS

openssl rsa [-inform PEM|NET|DER] [-outform PEM|NET|DER] [-in filename] [-passin arg] [-out filename] [-passout arg] [-sgckey] [-des] [-des3] [-idea] [-text] [-noout] [-modulus] [-check] [-pubin] [-pubout] [-engine id]  

DESCRIPTION

The rsa command processes RSA keys. They can be converted between various forms and their components printed out. Note this command uses the traditional SSLeay compatible format for private key encryption: newer applications should use the more secure PKCS#8 format using the pkcs8 utility.  

COMMAND OPTIONS

-inform DER|NET|PEM
This specifies the input format. The DER option uses an ASN1 DER encoded form compatible with the PKCS#1 RSAPrivateKey or SubjectPublicKeyInfo format. The PEM form is the default format: it consists of the DER format base64 encoded with additional header and footer lines. On input PKCS#8 format private keys are also accepted. The NET form is a format is described in the NOTES section.
-outform DER|NET|PEM
This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning as the -inform option.
-in filename
This specifies the input filename to read a key from or standard input if this option is not specified. If the key is encrypted a pass phrase will be prompted for.
-passin arg
the input file password source. For more information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
-out filename
This specifies the output filename to write a key to or standard output if this option is not specified. If any encryption options are set then a pass phrase will be prompted for. The output filename should not be the same as the input filename.
-passout password
the output file password source. For more information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
-sgckey
use the modified NET algorithm used with some versions of Microsoft IIS and SGC keys.
-des|-des3|-idea
These options encrypt the private key with the DES, triple DES, or the IDEA ciphers respectively before outputting it. A pass phrase is prompted for. If none of these options is specified the key is written in plain text. This means that using the rsa utility to read in an encrypted key with no encryption option can be used to remove the pass phrase from a key, or by setting the encryption options it can be use to add or change the pass phrase. These options can only be used with PEM format output files.
-text
prints out the various public or private key components in plain text in addition to the encoded version.
-noout
this option prevents output of the encoded version of the key.
-modulus
this option prints out the value of the modulus of the key.
-check
this option checks the consistency of an RSA private key.
-pubin
by default a private key is read from the input file: with this option a public key is read instead.
-pubout
by default a private key is output: with this option a public key will be output instead. This option is automatically set if the input is a public key.
-engine id
specifying an engine (by it's unique id string) will cause req to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine, thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default for all available algorithms.
 

NOTES

The PEM private key format uses the header and footer lines:

 -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
 -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

The PEM public key format uses the header and footer lines:

 -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
 -----END PUBLIC KEY-----

The NET form is a format compatible with older Netscape servers and Microsoft IIS .key files, this uses unsalted RC4 for its encryption. It is not very secure and so should only be used when necessary.

Some newer version of IIS have additional data in the exported .key files. To use these with the utility, view the file with a binary editor and look for the string ``private-key'', then trace back to the byte sequence 0x30, 0x82 (this is an ASN1 SEQUENCE). Copy all the data from this point onwards to another file and use that as the input to the rsa utility with the -inform NET option. If you get an error after entering the password try the -sgckey option.  

EXAMPLES

To remove the pass phrase on an RSA private key:

 openssl rsa -in key.pem -out keyout.pem

To encrypt a private key using triple DES:

 openssl rsa -in key.pem -des3 -out keyout.pem

To convert a private key from PEM to DER format:

 openssl rsa -in key.pem -outform DER -out keyout.der

To print out the components of a private key to standard output:

 openssl rsa -in key.pem -text -noout

To just output the public part of a private key:

 openssl rsa -in key.pem -pubout -out pubkey.pem

 

BUGS

The command line password arguments don't currently work with NET format.

There should be an option that automatically handles .key files, without having to manually edit them.  

SEE ALSO

pkcs8(1), dsa(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
COMMAND OPTIONS
NOTES
EXAMPLES
BUGS
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html using the manual pages.
Time: 17:32:14 GMT, October 23, 2013

2. rsa.3.man

Manpage of rsa

rsa

Section: OpenSSL (3)
Updated: 2002-08-04
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

rsa - RSA public key cryptosystem  

SYNOPSIS

 #include <openssl/rsa.h>
 #include <openssl/engine.h>

 RSA * RSA_new(void);
 void RSA_free(RSA *rsa);

 int RSA_public_encrypt(int flen, unsigned char *from,
    unsigned char *to, RSA *rsa, int padding);
 int RSA_private_decrypt(int flen, unsigned char *from,
    unsigned char *to, RSA *rsa, int padding);
 int RSA_private_encrypt(int flen, unsigned char *from,
    unsigned char *to, RSA *rsa,int padding);
 int RSA_public_decrypt(int flen, unsigned char *from, 
    unsigned char *to, RSA *rsa,int padding);

 int RSA_sign(int type, unsigned char *m, unsigned int m_len,
    unsigned char *sigret, unsigned int *siglen, RSA *rsa);
 int RSA_verify(int type, unsigned char *m, unsigned int m_len,
    unsigned char *sigbuf, unsigned int siglen, RSA *rsa);

 int RSA_size(const RSA *rsa);

 RSA *RSA_generate_key(int num, unsigned long e,
    void (*callback)(int,int,void *), void *cb_arg);

 int RSA_check_key(RSA *rsa);

 int RSA_blinding_on(RSA *rsa, BN_CTX *ctx);
 void RSA_blinding_off(RSA *rsa);

 void RSA_set_default_method(const RSA_METHOD *meth);
 const RSA_METHOD *RSA_get_default_method(void);
 int RSA_set_method(RSA *rsa, const RSA_METHOD *meth);
 const RSA_METHOD *RSA_get_method(const RSA *rsa);
 RSA_METHOD *RSA_PKCS1_SSLeay(void);
 RSA_METHOD *RSA_null_method(void);
 int RSA_flags(const RSA *rsa);
 RSA *RSA_new_method(ENGINE *engine);

 int RSA_print(BIO *bp, RSA *x, int offset);
 int RSA_print_fp(FILE *fp, RSA *x, int offset);

 int RSA_get_ex_new_index(long argl, char *argp, int (*new_func)(),
    int (*dup_func)(), void (*free_func)());
 int RSA_set_ex_data(RSA *r,int idx,char *arg);
 char *RSA_get_ex_data(RSA *r, int idx);

 int RSA_sign_ASN1_OCTET_STRING(int dummy, unsigned char *m,
    unsigned int m_len, unsigned char *sigret, unsigned int *siglen,
    RSA *rsa);
 int RSA_verify_ASN1_OCTET_STRING(int dummy, unsigned char *m,
    unsigned int m_len, unsigned char *sigbuf, unsigned int siglen,
    RSA *rsa);

 

DESCRIPTION

These functions implement RSA public key encryption and signatures as defined in PKCS #1 v2.0 [RFC 2437].

The RSA structure consists of several BIGNUM components. It can contain public as well as private RSA keys:

 struct
        {
        BIGNUM *n;              // public modulus
        BIGNUM *e;              // public exponent
        BIGNUM *d;              // private exponent
        BIGNUM *p;              // secret prime factor
        BIGNUM *q;              // secret prime factor
        BIGNUM *dmp1;           // d mod (p-1)
        BIGNUM *dmq1;           // d mod (q-1)
        BIGNUM *iqmp;           // q^-1 mod p
        // ...
        };
 RSA

In public keys, the private exponent and the related secret values are NULL.

p, q, dmp1, dmq1 and iqmp may be NULL in private keys, but the RSA operations are much faster when these values are available.

Note that RSA keys may use non-standard RSA_METHOD implementations, either directly or by the use of ENGINE modules. In some cases (eg. an ENGINE providing support for hardware-embedded keys), these BIGNUM values will not be used by the implementation or may be used for alternative data storage. For this reason, applications should generally avoid using RSA structure elements directly and instead use API functions to query or modify keys.  

CONFORMING TO

SSL, PKCS #1 v2.0  

PATENTS

RSA was covered by a US patent which expired in September 2000.  

SEE ALSO

rsa(1), bn(3), dsa(3), dh(3), rand(3), engine(3), RSA_new(3), RSA_public_encrypt(3), RSA_sign(3), RSA_size(3), RSA_generate_key(3), RSA_check_key(3), RSA_blinding_on(3), RSA_set_method(3), RSA_print(3), RSA_get_ex_new_index(3), RSA_private_encrypt(3), RSA_sign_ASN1_OCTET_STRING(3), RSA_padding_add_PKCS1_type_1(3)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONFORMING TO
PATENTS
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html using the manual pages.
Time: 17:32:14 GMT, October 23, 2013

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