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iostat

Report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output


  1. iostat.1.man


1. iostat.1.man

Manpage of IOSTAT

IOSTAT

Section: Linux User's Manual (1)
Updated: MAY 2011
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

iostat - Report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output statistics for devices and partitions.  

SYNOPSIS

iostat [ -c ] [ -d ] [ --debuginfo ] [ -h ] [ -N ] [ -k | -m ] [ -t ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -z ] [ device [...] | ALL ] [ -p [ device [,...] | ALL ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]  

DESCRIPTION

The iostat command is used for monitoring system input/output device loading by observing the time the devices are active in relation to their average transfer rates. The iostat command generates reports that can be used to change system configuration to better balance the input/output load between physical disks.

The first report generated by the iostat command provides statistics concerning the time since the system was booted. Each subsequent report covers the time since the previous report. All statistics are reported each time the iostat command is run. The report consists of a CPU header row followed by a row of CPU statistics. On multiprocessor systems, CPU statistics are calculated system-wide as averages among all processors. A device header row is displayed followed by a line of statistics for each device that is configured.

The interval parameter specifies the amount of time in seconds between each report. The first report contains statistics for the time since system startup (boot). Each subsequent report contains statistics collected during the interval since the previous report. The count parameter can be specified in conjunction with the interval parameter. If the count parameter is specified, the value of count determines the number of reports generated at interval seconds apart. If the interval parameter is specified without the count parameter, the iostat command generates reports continuously.

 

REPORTS

The iostat command generates three types of reports, the CPU Utilization report, the Device Utilization report and the Network Filesystem report.
CPU Utilization Report
The first report generated by the iostat command is the CPU Utilization Report. For multiprocessor systems, the CPU values are global averages among all processors. The report has the following format:

%user

Show the percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level (application).

%nice

Show the percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level with nice priority.

%system

Show the percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the system level (kernel).

%iowait

Show the percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle during which the system had an outstanding disk I/O request.

%steal

Show the percentage of time spent in involuntary wait by the virtual CPU or CPUs while the hypervisor was servicing another virtual processor.

%idle

Show the percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle and the system did not have an outstanding disk I/O request.
Device Utilization Report
The second report generated by the iostat command is the Device Utilization Report. The device report provides statistics on a per physical device or partition basis. Block devices and partitions for which statistics are to be displayed may be entered on the command line. If no device nor partition is entered, then statistics are displayed for every device used by the system, and providing that the kernel maintains statistics for it. If the ALL keyword is given on the command line, then statistics are displayed for every device defined by the system, including those that have never been used. Transfer rates are shown in 1K blocks by default, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used. The report may show the following fields, depending on the flags used:

Device:

This column gives the device (or partition) name as listed in the /dev directory.

tps
Indicate the number of transfers per second that were issued to the device. A transfer is an I/O request to the device. Multiple logical requests can be combined into a single I/O request to the device. A transfer is of indeterminate size.

Blk_read/s (kB_read/s, MB_read/s)
Indicate the amount of data read from the device expressed in a number of blocks (kilobytes, megabytes) per second. Blocks are equivalent to sectors and therefore have a size of 512 bytes.

Blk_wrtn/s (kB_wrtn/s, MB_wrtn/s)
Indicate the amount of data written to the device expressed in a number of blocks (kilobytes, megabytes) per second.

Blk_read (kB_read, MB_read)
The total number of blocks (kilobytes, megabytes) read.

Blk_wrtn (kB_wrtn, MB_wrtn)
The total number of blocks (kilobytes, megabytes) written.

rrqm/s
The number of read requests merged per second that were queued to the device.

wrqm/s
The number of write requests merged per second that were queued to the device.

r/s
The number (after merges) of read requests completed per second for the device.

w/s
The number (after merges) of write requests completed per second for the device.

rsec/s (rkB/s, rMB/s)
The number of sectors (kilobytes, megabytes) read from the device per second.

wsec/s (wkB/s, wMB/s)
The number of sectors (kilobytes, megabytes) written to the device per second.

avgrq-sz
The average size (in sectors) of the requests that were issued to the device.

avgqu-sz
The average queue length of the requests that were issued to the device.

await
The average time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests issued to the device to be served. This includes the time spent by the requests in queue and the time spent servicing them.

r_await
The average time (in milliseconds) for read requests issued to the device to be served. This includes the time spent by the requests in queue and the time spent servicing them.

w_await
The average time (in milliseconds) for write requests issued to the device to be served. This includes the time spent by the requests in queue and the time spent servicing them.

svctm
The average service time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests that were issued to the device. Warning! Do not trust this field any more. This field will be removed in a future sysstat version.

%util
Percentage of CPU time during which I/O requests were issued to the device (bandwidth utilization for the device). Device saturation occurs when this value is close to 100%.
 

OPTIONS

-c
Display the CPU utilization report.
-d
Display the device utilization report.
--debuginfo
Print debug output to stderr.
-h
Make the Device Utilization Report easier to read by a human.
-k
Display statistics in kilobytes per second.
-m
Display statistics in megabytes per second.
-N
Display the registered device mapper names for any device mapper devices. Useful for viewing LVM2 statistics.
-p [ { device [,...] | ALL } ]
The -p option displays statistics for block devices and all their partitions that are used by the system. If a device name is entered on the command line, then statistics for it and all its partitions are displayed. Last, the ALL keyword indicates that statistics have to be displayed for all the block devices and partitions defined by the system, including those that have never been used.
-t
Print the time for each report displayed. The timestamp format may depend on the value of the S_TIME_FORMAT environment variable (see below).
-V
Print version number then exit.
-x
Display extended statistics.
-z
Tell iostat to omit output for any devices for which there was no activity during the sample period.

 

ENVIRONMENT

The iostat command takes into account the following environment variables:

S_TIME_FORMAT
If this variable exists and its value is ISO then the current locale will be ignored when printing the date in the report header. The iostat command will use the ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD) instead. The timestamp displayed with option -t will also be compliant with ISO 8601 format.

POSIXLY_CORRECT
When this variable is set, transfer rates are shown in 512-byte blocks instead of the default 1K blocks.

 

EXAMPLES

iostat
Display a single history since boot report for all CPU and Devices.

iostat -d 2
Display a continuous device report at two second intervals.

iostat -d 2 6
Display six reports at two second intervals for all devices.

iostat -x sda sdb 2 6
Display six reports of extended statistics at two second intervals for devices sda and sdb.

iostat -p sda 2 6
Display six reports at two second intervals for device sda and all its partitions (sda1, etc.)
 

BUGS

/proc filesystem must be mounted for iostat to work.

Kernels older than 2.6.x are no longer supported.

The average service time (svctm field) value is meaningless, as I/O statistics are calculated at block level, and we don't know when the disk driver starts to process a request. For this reason, this field will be removed in a future sysstat version.  

FILES

/proc/stat contains system statistics.

/proc/uptime contains system uptime.

/proc/diskstats contains disks statistics.

/sys contains statistics for block devices.

/proc/self/mountstats contains statistics for network filesystems.  

AUTHOR

Sebastien Godard (sysstat <at> orange.fr)  

SEE ALSO

sar(1), pidstat(1), mpstat(1), vmstat(8), nfsiostat(1), cifsiostat(1)

http://pagesperso-orange.fr/sebastien.godard/


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
REPORTS
OPTIONS
ENVIRONMENT
EXAMPLES
BUGS
FILES
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html using the manual pages.
Time: 17:31:15 GMT, October 23, 2013

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