# 9.6. \$RANDOM: generate random integer

\$RANDOM is an internal Bash function (not a constant) that returns a pseudorandom [1] integer in the range 0 - 32767. It should not be used to generate an encryption key.

Example 9-24. Generating random numbers

```#!/bin/bash

# \$RANDOM returns a different random integer at each invocation.
# Nominal range: 0 - 32767 (signed 16-bit integer).

MAXCOUNT=10
count=1

echo
echo "\$MAXCOUNT random numbers:"
echo "-----------------"
while [ "\$count" -le \$MAXCOUNT ]      # Generate 10 (\$MAXCOUNT) random integers.
do
number=\$RANDOM
echo \$number
let "count += 1"  # Increment count.
done
echo "-----------------"

# If you need a random int within a certain range, use the 'modulo' operator.
# This returns the remainder of a division operation.

RANGE=500

echo

number=\$RANDOM
let "number %= \$RANGE"
#           ^^
echo "Random number less than \$RANGE  ---  \$number"

echo

# If you need a random int greater than a lower bound,
# then set up a test to discard all numbers below that.

FLOOR=200

number=0   #initialize
while [ "\$number" -le \$FLOOR ]
do
number=\$RANDOM
done
echo "Random number greater than \$FLOOR ---  \$number"
echo

# Combine above two techniques to retrieve random number between two limits.
number=0   #initialize
while [ "\$number" -le \$FLOOR ]
do
number=\$RANDOM
let "number %= \$RANGE"  # Scales \$number down within \$RANGE.
done
echo "Random number between \$FLOOR and \$RANGE ---  \$number"
echo

# Generate binary choice, that is, "true" or "false" value.
BINARY=2
T=1
number=\$RANDOM

let "number %= \$BINARY"
#  Note that    let "number >>= 14"    gives a better random distribution
#+ (right shifts out everything except last binary digit).
if [ "\$number" -eq \$T ]
then
echo "TRUE"
else
echo "FALSE"
fi

echo

# Generate toss of the dice.
SPOTS=6   # Modulo 6 gives range 0 - 5.
# Incrementing by 1 gives desired range of 1 - 6.
# Thanks, Paulo Marcel Coelho Aragao, for the simplification.
die1=0
die2=0

# Tosses each die separately, and so gives correct odds.

let "die1 = \$RANDOM % \$SPOTS +1" # Roll first one.
let "die2 = \$RANDOM % \$SPOTS +1" # Roll second one.
#  Which arithmetic operation, above, has greater precedence --
#+ modulo (%) or addition (+)?

let "throw = \$die1 + \$die2"
echo "Throw of the dice = \$throw"
echo

exit 0```

Example 9-25. Picking a random card from a deck

```#!/bin/bash
# pick-card.sh

# This is an example of choosing random elements of an array.

# Pick a card, any card.

Suites="Clubs
Diamonds
Hearts

Denominations="2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Jack
Queen
King
Ace"

# Note variables spread over multiple lines.

suite=(\$Suites)                # Read into array variable.
denomination=(\$Denominations)

num_suites=\${#suite[*]}        # Count how many elements.
num_denominations=\${#denomination[*]}

echo -n "\${denomination[\$((RANDOM%num_denominations))]} of "
echo \${suite[\$((RANDOM%num_suites))]}

# \$bozo sh pick-cards.sh
# Jack of Clubs

# Thank you, "jipe," for pointing out this use of \$RANDOM.
exit 0```

Jipe points out a set of techniques for generating random numbers within a range.

```#  Generate random number between 6 and 30.
rnumber=\$((RANDOM%25+6))

#  Generate random number in the same 6 - 30 range,
#+ but the number must be evenly divisible by 3.
rnumber=\$(((RANDOM%30/3+1)*3))

# Note that this will not work all the time.
# It fails if \$RANDOM returns 0.

#  Exercise: Try to figure out the pattern here.```

Bill Gradwohl came up with an improved formula that works for positive numbers.

`rnumber=\$(((RANDOM%(max-min+divisibleBy))/divisibleBy*divisibleBy+min))`

Here Bill presents a versatile function that returns a random number between two specified values.

Example 9-26. Random between values

```#!/bin/bash
# random-between.sh
# Random number between two specified values.
# Script by Bill Gradwohl, with minor modifications by the document author.
# Used with permission.

randomBetween() {
#  Generates a positive or negative random number
#+ between \$min and \$max
#+ and divisible by \$divisibleBy.
#  Gives a "reasonably random" distribution of return values.
#
#  Bill Gradwohl - Oct 1, 2003

syntax() {
# Function embedded within function.
echo
echo    "Syntax: randomBetween [min] [max] [multiple]"
echo
echo    "Expects up to 3 passed parameters, but all are completely optional."
echo    "min is the minimum value"
echo    "max is the maximum value"
echo    "multiple specifies that the answer must be a multiple of this value."
echo    "    i.e. answer must be evenly divisible by this number."
echo
echo    "If any value is missing, defaults area supplied as: 0 32767 1"
echo    "Successful completion returns 0, unsuccessful completion returns"
echo    "function syntax and 1."
echo    "Negative values for any passed parameter are handled correctly."
}

local min=\${1:-0}
local max=\${2:-32767}
local divisibleBy=\${3:-1}
# Default values assigned, in case parameters not passed to function.

local x

# Let's make sure the divisibleBy value is positive.
[ \${divisibleBy} -lt 0 ] && divisibleBy=\$((0-divisibleBy))

# Sanity check.
if [ \$# -gt 3 -o \${divisibleBy} -eq 0 -o  \${min} -eq \${max} ]; then
syntax
return 1
fi

# See if the min and max are reversed.
if [ \${min} -gt \${max} ]; then
# Swap them.
x=\${min}
min=\${max}
max=\${x}
fi

#  If min is itself not evenly divisible by \$divisibleBy,
#+ then fix the min to be within range.
if [ \$((min/divisibleBy*divisibleBy)) -ne \${min} ]; then
if [ \${min} -lt 0 ]; then
min=\$((min/divisibleBy*divisibleBy))
else
min=\$((((min/divisibleBy)+1)*divisibleBy))
fi
fi

#  If max is itself not evenly divisible by \$divisibleBy,
#+ then fix the max to be within range.
if [ \$((max/divisibleBy*divisibleBy)) -ne \${max} ]; then
if [ \${max} -lt 0 ]; then
max=\$((((max/divisibleBy)-1)*divisibleBy))
else
max=\$((max/divisibleBy*divisibleBy))
fi
fi

#  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Now, to do the real work.

#  Note that to get a proper distribution for the end points,
#+ the range of random values has to be allowed to go between
#+ 0 and abs(max-min)+divisibleBy, not just abs(max-min)+1.

#  The slight increase will produce the proper distribution for the
#+ end points.

#  Changing the formula to use abs(max-min)+1 will still produce
#+ correct answers, but the randomness of those answers is faulty in
#+ that the number of times the end points (\$min and \$max) are returned
#+ is considerably lower than when the correct formula is used.
#  ---------------------------------------------------------------------

return 0

#  However, Paulo Marcel Coelho Aragao points out that
#+ when \$max and \$min are not divisible by \$divisibleBy,
#+ the formula fails.
#
#  He suggests instead the following formula:
#    rnumber = \$(((RANDOM%(max-min+1)+min)/divisibleBy*divisibleBy))

}

# Let's test the function.
min=-14
max=20
divisibleBy=3

#  Generate an array of expected answers and check to make sure we get
#+ at least one of each answer if we loop long enough.

minimum=\${min}
maximum=\${max}
if [ \$((minimum/divisibleBy*divisibleBy)) -ne \${minimum} ]; then
if [ \${minimum} -lt 0 ]; then
minimum=\$((minimum/divisibleBy*divisibleBy))
else
minimum=\$((((minimum/divisibleBy)+1)*divisibleBy))
fi
fi

#  If max is itself not evenly divisible by \$divisibleBy,
#+ then fix the max to be within range.

if [ \$((maximum/divisibleBy*divisibleBy)) -ne \${maximum} ]; then
if [ \${maximum} -lt 0 ]; then
maximum=\$((((maximum/divisibleBy)-1)*divisibleBy))
else
maximum=\$((maximum/divisibleBy*divisibleBy))
fi
fi

#  We need to generate only positive array subscripts,
#+ so we need a displacement that that will guarantee
#+ positive results.

displacement=\$((0-minimum))
for ((i=\${minimum}; i<=\${maximum}; i+=divisibleBy)); do
done

# Now loop a large number of times to see what we get.
loopIt=1000   #  The script author suggests 100000,
#+ but that takes a good long while.

for ((i=0; i<\${loopIt}; ++i)); do

#  Note that we are specifying min and max in reversed order here to
#+ make the function correct for this case.

randomBetween \${max} \${min} \${divisibleBy}

# Report an error if an answer is unexpected.
[ \${randomBetweenAnswer} -lt \${min} -o \${randomBetweenAnswer} -gt \${max} ] && echo MIN or MAX error - \${randomBetweenAnswer}!
[ \$((randomBetweenAnswer%\${divisibleBy})) -ne 0 ] && echo DIVISIBLE BY error - \${randomBetweenAnswer}!

# Store the answer away statistically.
done

# Let's check the results

for ((i=\${minimum}; i<=\${maximum}; i+=divisibleBy)); do
[ \${answer[i+displacement]} -eq 0 ] && echo "We never got an answer of \$i." || echo "\${i} occurred \${answer[i+displacement]} times."
done

exit 0```

Just how random is \$RANDOM? The best way to test this is to write a script that tracks the distribution of "random" numbers generated by \$RANDOM. Let's roll a \$RANDOM die a few times . . .

Example 9-27. Rolling a single die with RANDOM

```#!/bin/bash
# How random is RANDOM?

RANDOM=\$\$       # Reseed the random number generator using script process ID.

PIPS=6          # A die has 6 pips.
MAXTHROWS=600   # Increase this if you have nothing better to do with your time.
throw=0         # Throw count.

ones=0          #  Must initialize counts to zero,
twos=0          #+ since an uninitialized variable is null, not zero.
threes=0
fours=0
fives=0
sixes=0

print_result ()
{
echo
echo "ones =   \$ones"
echo "twos =   \$twos"
echo "threes = \$threes"
echo "fours =  \$fours"
echo "fives =  \$fives"
echo "sixes =  \$sixes"
echo
}

update_count()
{
case "\$1" in
0) let "ones += 1";;   # Since die has no "zero", this corresponds to 1.
1) let "twos += 1";;   # And this to 2, etc.
2) let "threes += 1";;
3) let "fours += 1";;
4) let "fives += 1";;
5) let "sixes += 1";;
esac
}

echo

while [ "\$throw" -lt "\$MAXTHROWS" ]
do
let "die1 = RANDOM % \$PIPS"
update_count \$die1
let "throw += 1"
done

print_result

exit 0

#  The scores should distribute fairly evenly, assuming RANDOM is fairly random.
#  With \$MAXTHROWS at 600, all should cluster around 100, plus-or-minus 20 or so.
#
#  Keep in mind that RANDOM is a pseudorandom generator,
#+ and not a spectacularly good one at that.

#  Randomness is a deep and complex subject.
#  Sufficiently long "random" sequences may exhibit
#+ chaotic and other "non-random" behavior.

# Exercise (easy):
# ---------------
# Rewrite this script to flip a coin 1000 times.
# Choices are "HEADS" and "TAILS".```

As we have seen in the last example, it is best to "reseed" the RANDOM generator each time it is invoked. Using the same seed for RANDOM repeats the same series of numbers. [2] (This mirrors the behavior of the random() function in C.)

Example 9-28. Reseeding RANDOM

```#!/bin/bash
# seeding-random.sh: Seeding the RANDOM variable.

MAXCOUNT=25       # How many numbers to generate.

random_numbers ()
{
count=0
while [ "\$count" -lt "\$MAXCOUNT" ]
do
number=\$RANDOM
echo -n "\$number "
let "count += 1"
done
}

echo; echo

RANDOM=1          # Setting RANDOM seeds the random number generator.
random_numbers

echo; echo

RANDOM=1          # Same seed for RANDOM...
random_numbers    # ...reproduces the exact same number series.
#
# When is it useful to duplicate a "random" number series?

echo; echo

RANDOM=2          # Trying again, but with a different seed...
random_numbers    # gives a different number series.

echo; echo

# RANDOM=\$\$  seeds RANDOM from process id of script.
# It is also possible to seed RANDOM from 'time' or 'date' commands.

# Getting fancy...
SEED=\$(head -1 /dev/urandom | od -N 1 | awk '{ print \$2 }')
#  Pseudo-random output fetched
#+ from /dev/urandom (system pseudo-random device-file),
#+ then converted to line of printable (octal) numbers by "od",
#+ finally "awk" retrieves just one number for SEED.
RANDOM=\$SEED
random_numbers

echo; echo

exit 0```

 The /dev/urandom device-file provides a method of generating much more "random" pseudorandom numbers than the \$RANDOM variable. dd if=/dev/urandom of=targetfile bs=1 count=XX creates a file of well-scattered pseudorandom numbers. However, assigning these numbers to a variable in a script requires a workaround, such as filtering through od (as in above example and Example 12-13), or using dd (see Example 12-53), or even piping to md5sum (see Example 34-13).There are also other ways to generate pseudorandom numbers in a script. Awk provides a convenient means of doing this.Example 9-29. Pseudorandom numbers, using awk```#!/bin/bash # random2.sh: Returns a pseudorandom number in the range 0 - 1. # Uses the awk rand() function. AWKSCRIPT=' { srand(); print rand() } ' # Command(s) / parameters passed to awk # Note that srand() reseeds awk's random number generator. echo -n "Random number between 0 and 1 = " echo | awk "\$AWKSCRIPT" # What happens if you leave out the 'echo'? exit 0 # Exercises: # --------- # 1) Using a loop construct, print out 10 different random numbers. # (Hint: you must reseed the "srand()" function with a different seed #+ in each pass through the loop. What happens if you fail to do this?) # 2) Using an integer multiplier as a scaling factor, generate random numbers #+ in the range between 10 and 100. # 3) Same as exercise #2, above, but generate random integers this time.```The date command also lends itself to generating pseudorandom integer sequences.

### Notes

 [1] True "randomness," insofar as it exists at all, can only be found in certain incompletely understood natural phenomena such as radioactive decay. Computers can only simulate randomness, and computer-generated sequences of "random" numbers are therefore referred to as pseudorandom. [2] The seed of a computer-generated pseudorandom number series can be considered an identification label. For example, think of the pseudorandom series with a seed of 23 as series #23.A property of a pseurandom number series is the length of the cycle before it starts repeating itself. A good pseurandom generator will produce series with very long cycles.

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