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12.9. Miscellaneous Commands

Command that fit in no special category

jot, seq

These utilities emit a sequence of integers, with a user-selected increment.

The normal separator character between each integer is a newline, but this can be changed with the -s option.

bash$ seq 5
1
 2
 3
 4
 5



bash$ seq -s : 5
1:2:3:4:5
	      

Both jot and seq come in handy in a for loop.

Example 12-47. Using seq to generate loop arguments

#!/bin/bash
# Using "seq"

echo

for a in `seq 80`  # or   for a in $( seq 80 )
# Same as   for a in 1 2 3 4 5 ... 80   (saves much typing!).
# May also use 'jot' (if present on system).
do
  echo -n "$a "
done      # 1 2 3 4 5 ... 80
# Example of using the output of a command to generate 
# the [list] in a "for" loop.

echo; echo


COUNT=80  # Yes, 'seq' may also take a replaceable parameter.

for a in `seq $COUNT`  # or   for a in $( seq $COUNT )
do
  echo -n "$a "
done      # 1 2 3 4 5 ... 80

echo; echo

BEGIN=75
END=80

for a in `seq $BEGIN $END`
#  Giving "seq" two arguments starts the count at the first one,
#+ and continues until it reaches the second.
do
  echo -n "$a "
done      # 75 76 77 78 79 80

echo; echo

BEGIN=45
INTERVAL=5
END=80

for a in `seq $BEGIN $INTERVAL $END`
#  Giving "seq" three arguments starts the count at the first one,
#+ uses the second for a step interval,
#+ and continues until it reaches the third.
do
  echo -n "$a "
done      # 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

echo; echo

exit 0

Example 12-48. Letter Count"

#!/bin/bash
# letter-count.sh: Counting letter occurrences in a text file.
# Written by Stefano Palmeri.
# Used in ABS Guide with permission.
# Slightly modified by document author.

MINARGS=2          # Script requires at least two arguments.
E_BADARGS=65
FILE=$1

let LETTERS=$#-1   # How many letters specified (as command-line args).
                   # (Subtract 1 from number of command line args.)


show_help(){
	   echo
           echo Usage: `basename $0` file letters  
           echo Note: `basename $0` arguments are case sensitive.
           echo Example: `basename $0` foobar.txt G n U L i N U x.
	   echo
}

# Checks number of arguments.
if [ $# -lt $MINARGS ]; then
   echo
   echo "Not enough arguments."
   echo
   show_help
   exit $E_BADARGS
fi  


# Checks if file exists.
if [ ! -f $FILE ]; then
    echo "File \"$FILE\" does not exist."
    exit $E_BADARGS
fi



# Counts letter occurrences .
for n in `seq $LETTERS`; do
      shift
      if [[ `echo -n "$1" | wc -c` -eq 1 ]]; then             #  Checks arg.
             echo "$1" -\> `cat $FILE | tr -cd  "$1" | wc -c` #  Counting.
      else
             echo "$1 is not a  single char."
      fi  
done

exit $?

#  This script has exactly the same functionality as letter-count2.sh,
#+ but executes faster.
#  Why?
getopt

The getopt command parses command-line options preceded by a dash. This external command corresponds to the getopts Bash builtin. Using getopt permits handling long options by means of the -l flag, and this also allows parameter reshuffling.

Example 12-49. Using getopt to parse command-line options

#!/bin/bash
# Using getopt.

# Try the following when invoking this script:
#   sh ex33a.sh -a
#   sh ex33a.sh -abc
#   sh ex33a.sh -a -b -c
#   sh ex33a.sh -d
#   sh ex33a.sh -dXYZ
#   sh ex33a.sh -d XYZ
#   sh ex33a.sh -abcd
#   sh ex33a.sh -abcdZ
#   sh ex33a.sh -z
#   sh ex33a.sh a
# Explain the results of each of the above.

E_OPTERR=65

if [ "$#" -eq 0 ]
then   # Script needs at least one command-line argument.
  echo "Usage $0 -[options a,b,c]"
  exit $E_OPTERR
fi  

set -- `getopt "abcd:" "$@"`
# Sets positional parameters to command-line arguments.
# What happens if you use "$*" instead of "$@"?

while [ ! -z "$1" ]
do
  case "$1" in
    -a) echo "Option \"a\"";;
    -b) echo "Option \"b\"";;
    -c) echo "Option \"c\"";;
    -d) echo "Option \"d\" $2";;
     *) break;;
  esac

  shift
done

#  It is usually better to use the 'getopts' builtin in a script,
#+ rather than 'getopt'.
#  See "ex33.sh".

exit 0

See Example 9-12 for a simplified emulation of getopt.

run-parts

The run-parts command [1] executes all the scripts in a target directory, sequentially in ASCII-sorted filename order. Of course, the scripts need to have execute permission.

The cron daemon invokes run-parts to run the scripts in the /etc/cron.* directories.

yes

In its default behavior the yes command feeds a continuous string of the character y followed by a line feed to stdout. A control-c terminates the run. A different output string may be specified, as in yes different string, which would continually output different string to stdout. One might well ask the purpose of this. From the command line or in a script, the output of yes can be redirected or piped into a program expecting user input. In effect, this becomes a sort of poor man's version of expect.

yes | fsck /dev/hda1 runs fsck non-interactively (careful!).

yes | rm -r dirname has same effect as rm -rf dirname (careful!).

Warning

Caution advised when piping yes to a potentially dangerous system command, such as fsck or fdisk. It may have unintended side-effects.

banner

Prints arguments as a large vertical banner to stdout, using an ASCII character (default '#'). This may be redirected to a printer for hardcopy.

printenv

Show all the environmental variables set for a particular user.

bash$ printenv | grep HOME
HOME=/home/bozo
	      

lp

The lp and lpr commands send file(s) to the print queue, to be printed as hard copy. [2] These commands trace the origin of their names to the line printers of another era.

bash$ lp file1.txt or bash lp <file1.txt

It is often useful to pipe the formatted output from pr to lp.

bash$ pr -options file1.txt | lp

Formatting packages, such as groff and Ghostscript may send their output directly to lp.

bash$ groff -Tascii file.tr | lp

bash$ gs -options | lp file.ps

Related commands are lpq, for viewing the print queue, and lprm, for removing jobs from the print queue.

tee

[UNIX borrows an idea here from the plumbing trade.]

This is a redirection operator, but with a difference. Like the plumber's "tee," it permits "siponing off" to a file the output of a command or commands within a pipe, but without affecting the result. This is useful for printing an ongoing process to a file or paper, perhaps to keep track of it for debugging purposes.

                   tee
                 |------> to file
                 |
  ===============|===============
  command--->----|-operator-->---> result of command(s)
  ===============================
	      

cat listfile* | sort | tee check.file | uniq > result.file
(The file check.file contains the concatenated sorted "listfiles", before the duplicate lines are removed by uniq.)

mkfifo

This obscure command creates a named pipe, a temporary first-in-first-out buffer for transferring data between processes. [3] Typically, one process writes to the FIFO, and the other reads from it. See Example A-15.

pathchk

This command checks the validity of a filename. If the filename exceeds the maximum allowable length (255 characters) or one or more of the directories in its path is not searchable, then an error message results.

Unfortunately, pathchk does not return a recognizable error code, and it is therefore pretty much useless in a script. Consider instead the file test operators.

dd

This is the somewhat obscure and much feared "data duplicator" command. Originally a utility for exchanging data on magnetic tapes between UNIX minicomputers and IBM mainframes, this command still has its uses. The dd command simply copies a file (or stdin/stdout), but with conversions. Possible conversions are ASCII/EBCDIC, [4] upper/lower case, swapping of byte pairs between input and output, and skipping and/or truncating the head or tail of the input file. A dd --help lists the conversion and other options that this powerful utility takes.

# Converting a file to all uppercase:

dd if=$filename conv=ucase > $filename.uppercase
#                    lcase   # For lower case conversion

Example 12-50. A script that copies itself

#!/bin/bash
# self-copy.sh

# This script copies itself.

file_subscript=copy

dd if=$0 of=$0.$file_subscript 2>/dev/null
# Suppress messages from dd:   ^^^^^^^^^^^

exit $?

Example 12-51. Exercising dd

#!/bin/bash
# exercising-dd.sh

# Script by Stephane Chazelas.
# Somewhat modified by document author.

input_file=$0   # This script.
output_file=log.txt
n=3
p=5

dd if=$input_file of=$output_file bs=1 skip=$((n-1)) count=$((p-n+1)) 2> /dev/null
# Extracts characters n to p from this script.

# -------------------------------------------------------

echo -n "hello world" | dd cbs=1 conv=unblock 2> /dev/null
# Echoes "hello world" vertically.

exit 0

To demonstrate just how versatile dd is, let's use it to capture keystrokes.

Example 12-52. Capturing Keystrokes

#!/bin/bash
# dd-keypress.sh: Capture keystrokes without needing to press ENTER.


keypresses=4                      # Number of keypresses to capture.


old_tty_setting=$(stty -g)        # Save old terminal settings.

echo "Press $keypresses keys."
stty -icanon -echo                # Disable canonical mode.
                                  # Disable local echo.
keys=$(dd bs=1 count=$keypresses 2> /dev/null)
# 'dd' uses stdin, if "if" (input file) not specified.

stty "$old_tty_setting"           # Restore old terminal settings.

echo "You pressed the \"$keys\" keys."

# Thanks, Stephane Chazelas, for showing the way.
exit 0

The dd command can do random access on a data stream.

echo -n . | dd bs=1 seek=4 of=file conv=notrunc
# The "conv=notrunc" option means that the output file will not be truncated.		

# Thanks, S.C.

The dd command can copy raw data and disk images to and from devices, such as floppies and tape drives (Example A-5). A common use is creating boot floppies.

dd if=kernel-image of=/dev/fd0H1440

Similarly, dd can copy the entire contents of a floppy, even one formatted with a "foreign" OS, to the hard drive as an image file.

dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/home/bozo/projects/floppy.img

Other applications of dd include initializing temporary swap files (Example 29-2) and ramdisks (Example 29-3). It can even do a low-level copy of an entire hard drive partition, although this is not necessarily recommended.

People (with presumably nothing better to do with their time) are constantly thinking of interesting applications of dd.

Example 12-53. Securely deleting a file

#!/bin/bash
# blot-out.sh: Erase "all" traces of a file.

#  This script overwrites a target file alternately
#+ with random bytes, then zeros before finally deleting it.
#  After that, even examining the raw disk sectors by conventional methods
#+ will not reveal the original file data.

PASSES=7         #  Number of file-shredding passes.
                 #  Increasing this slows script execution,
                 #+ especially on large target files.
BLOCKSIZE=1      #  I/O with /dev/urandom requires unit block size,
                 #+ otherwise you get weird results.
E_BADARGS=70     #  Various error exit codes.
E_NOT_FOUND=71
E_CHANGED_MIND=72

if [ -z "$1" ]   # No filename specified.
then
  echo "Usage: `basename $0` filename"
  exit $E_BADARGS
fi

file=$1

if [ ! -e "$file" ]
then
  echo "File \"$file\" not found."
  exit $E_NOT_FOUND
fi  

echo; echo -n "Are you absolutely sure you want to blot out \"$file\" (y/n)? "
read answer
case "$answer" in
[nN]) echo "Changed your mind, huh?"
      exit $E_CHANGED_MIND
      ;;
*)    echo "Blotting out file \"$file\".";;
esac


flength=$(ls -l "$file" | awk '{print $5}')  # Field 5 is file length.
pass_count=1

chmod u+w "$file"   # Allow overwriting/deleting the file.

echo

while [ "$pass_count" -le "$PASSES" ]
do
  echo "Pass #$pass_count"
  sync         # Flush buffers.
  dd if=/dev/urandom of=$file bs=$BLOCKSIZE count=$flength
               # Fill with random bytes.
  sync         # Flush buffers again.
  dd if=/dev/zero of=$file bs=$BLOCKSIZE count=$flength
               # Fill with zeros.
  sync         # Flush buffers yet again.
  let "pass_count += 1"
  echo
done  


rm -f $file    # Finally, delete scrambled and shredded file.
sync           # Flush buffers a final time.

echo "File \"$file\" blotted out and deleted."; echo


exit 0

#  This is a fairly secure, if inefficient and slow method
#+ of thoroughly "shredding" a file.
#  The "shred" command, part of the GNU "fileutils" package,
#+ does the same thing, although more efficiently.

#  The file cannot not be "undeleted" or retrieved by normal methods.
#  However . . .
#+ this simple method would *not* likely withstand
#+ sophisticated forensic analysis.

#  This script may not play well with a journaled file system.
#  Exercise (difficult): Fix it so it does.



#  Tom Vier's "wipe" file-deletion package does a much more thorough job
#+ of file shredding than this simple script.
#     http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/utils/file/wipe-2.0.0.tar.bz2

#  For an in-depth analysis on the topic of file deletion and security,
#+ see Peter Gutmann's paper,
#+     "Secure Deletion of Data From Magnetic and Solid-State Memory".
#       http://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~pgut001/pubs/secure_del.html
od

The od, or octal dump filter converts input (or files) to octal (base-8) or other bases. This is useful for viewing or processing binary data files or otherwise unreadable system device files, such as /dev/urandom, and as a filter for binary data. See Example 9-28 and Example 12-13.

hexdump

Performs a hexadecimal, octal, decimal, or ASCII dump of a binary file. This command is the rough equivalent of od, above, but not nearly as useful.

objdump

Displays information about an object file or binary executable in either hexadecimal form or as a disassembled listing (with the -d option).

bash$ objdump -d /bin/ls
/bin/ls:     file format elf32-i386

 Disassembly of section .init:

 080490bc <.init>:
  80490bc:       55                      push   %ebp
  80490bd:       89 e5                   mov    %esp,%ebp
  . . .
	      

mcookie

This command generates a "magic cookie", a 128-bit (32-character) pseudorandom hexadecimal number, normally used as an authorization "signature" by the X server. This also available for use in a script as a "quick 'n dirty" random number.

random000=$(mcookie)

Of course, a script could use md5 for the same purpose.

# Generate md5 checksum on the script itself.
random001=`md5sum $0 | awk '{print $1}'`
# Uses 'awk' to strip off the filename.

The mcookie command gives yet another way to generate a "unique" filename.

Example 12-54. Filename generator

#!/bin/bash
# tempfile-name.sh:  temp filename generator

BASE_STR=`mcookie`   # 32-character magic cookie.
POS=11               # Arbitrary position in magic cookie string.
LEN=5                # Get $LEN consecutive characters.

prefix=temp          #  This is, after all, a "temp" file.
                     #  For more "uniqueness," generate the filename prefix
                     #+ using the same method as the suffix, below.

suffix=${BASE_STR:POS:LEN}
                     # Extract a 5-character string, starting at position 11.

temp_filename=$prefix.$suffix
                     # Construct the filename.

echo "Temp filename = "$temp_filename""

# sh tempfile-name.sh
# Temp filename = temp.e19ea

#  Compare this method of generating "unique" filenames
#+ with the 'date' method in ex51.sh.

exit 0
units

This utility converts between different units of measure. While normally invoked in interactive mode, units may find use in a script.

Example 12-55. Converting meters to miles

#!/bin/bash
# unit-conversion.sh


convert_units ()  # Takes as arguments the units to convert.
{
  cf=$(units "$1" "$2" | sed --silent -e '1p' | awk '{print $2}')
  # Strip off everything except the actual conversion factor.
  echo "$cf"
}  

Unit1=miles
Unit2=meters
cfactor=`convert_units $Unit1 $Unit2`
quantity=3.73

result=$(echo $quantity*$cfactor | bc)

echo "There are $result $Unit2 in $quantity $Unit1."

#  What happens if you pass incompatible units,
#+ such as "acres" and "miles" to the function?

exit 0
m4

A hidden treasure, m4 is a powerful macro processing filter, [5] virtually a complete language. Although originally written as a pre-processor for RatFor, m4 turned out to be useful as a stand-alone utility. In fact, m4 combines some of the functionality of eval, tr, and awk, in addition to its extensive macro expansion facilities.

The April, 2002 issue of Linux Journal has a very nice article on m4 and its uses.

Example 12-56. Using m4

#!/bin/bash
# m4.sh: Using the m4 macro processor

# Strings
string=abcdA01
echo "len($string)" | m4                           # 7
echo "substr($string,4)" | m4                      # A01
echo "regexp($string,[0-1][0-1],\&Z)" | m4         # 01Z

# Arithmetic
echo "incr(22)" | m4                               # 23
echo "eval(99 / 3)" | m4                           # 33

exit 0
doexec

The doexec command enables passing an arbitrary list of arguments to a binary executable. In particular, passing argv[0] (which corresponds to $0 in a script) lets the executable be invoked by various names, and it can then carry out different sets of actions, according to the name by which it was called. What this amounts to is roundabout way of passing options to an executable.

For example, the /usr/local/bin directory might contain a binary called "aaa". Invoking doexec /usr/local/bin/aaa list would list all those files in the current working directory beginning with an "a", while invoking (the same executable with) doexec /usr/local/bin/aaa delete would delete those files.

Note

The various behaviors of the executable must be defined within the code of the executable itself, analogous to something like the following in a shell script:

case `basename $0` in
"name1" ) do_something;;
"name2" ) do_something_else;;
"name3" ) do_yet_another_thing;;
*       ) bail_out;;
esac

dialog

The dialog family of tools provide a method of calling interactive "dialog" boxes from a script. The more elaborate variations of dialog -- gdialog, Xdialog, and kdialog -- actually invoke X-Windows widgets. See Example 34-18.

sox

The sox, or "sound exchange" command plays and performs transformations on sound files. In fact, the /usr/bin/play executable (now deprecated) is nothing but a shell wrapper for sox.

For example, sox soundfile.wav soundfile.au changes a WAV sound file into a (Sun audio format) AU sound file.

Shell scripts are ideally suited for batch processing sox operations on sound files. For examples, see the Linux Radio Timeshift HOWTO and the MP3do Project.

Notes

[1]

This is actually a script adapted from the Debian Linux distribution.

[2]

The print queue is the group of jobs "waiting in line" to be printed.

[3]

For an excellent overview of this topic, see Andy Vaught's article, Introduction to Named Pipes, in the September, 1997 issue of Linux Journal.

[4]

EBCDIC (pronounced "ebb-sid-ick") is an acronym for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. This is an IBM data format no longer in much use. A bizarre application of the conv=ebcdic option of dd is as a quick 'n easy, but not very secure text file encoder.

cat $file | dd conv=swab,ebcdic > $file_encrypted
# Encode (looks like gibberish).		    
# Might as well switch bytes (swab), too, for a little extra obscurity.

cat $file_encrypted | dd conv=swab,ascii > $file_plaintext
# Decode.

[5]

A macro is a symbolic constant that expands into a command string or a set of operations on parameters.


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